botulim toxin

Botulinum Toxin in the Long-Term Treatment of Refractory Raynaud’s Phenomenon
Refractory Raynaud’s Phenomenon
Raynaud’s phenomenon is an exaggerated physiological response of blood vessels in the distal extremities to emotional stress and cold. It can be idiopathic or secondary to a connective tissue disorder, such as scleroderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. Treatment for Raynaud’s phenomenon consists primarily of lifestyle modifications; if unsuccessful, pharmacotherapy with dihydropyridine calci …
OnabotulinumtoxinA for Primary Axillary Hyperhidrosis | Therapeutic Cheat Sheet
OnabotulinumtoxinA for Hyperhidrosis
by Kamaria Nelson, MD on
Primary hyperhidrosis (PHH) is a dermatologic condition characterized by overactivity of eccrine glands resulting in excessive sweating primarily affecting the palms, soles, axillae, and craniofacial area. PHH is not caused by other conditions, whereas secondary hyperhidrosis is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication side effect. Botulinum toxin injections are often used as second …