A 65-year-old female patient presents with poorly demarcated, symmetric, very painful patches of erythema and retiform purpura, favoring the thighs and buttocks. Bullae and a dusky gray discoloration developed, as well as the appearance of ulcerations with black, leathery eschars. A skin biopsy of the affected area is suggestive of calciphylaxis. Shortly after, she dies from secondary infection and sepsis. Which of the following is NOT a known risk factor for the development of this condition?
A. Diabetes mellitus
C. End-stage renal disease
E. Male gender
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